This will be a library of Dr. Francis Young’s research papers.

A List of Frank’s Papers:


Title, Document #, Number of Pages

Ocular Biometry.

Y, 2, 287-292

Eskimo Error Refractive Transmission.

Y, 5, 276-285

The Effect of Restricted Visual Space on the Primate Eye.

Y, 15, 367-374

The Distribution of Refractive Errors in Monkeys.

Y, 20, 230-238

The Effect of Restricted Visual Space on the Very Young Primate Eye.

Y, 23, 571-577

Primate Myopia (Reference to Submarine and West Point Myopia).

Y, 24, 560-566

The Control of Myopia in Humans.

Y, 31, 16-31

The Development of Myopia.

Y, 33, 36-42

The Nature and Control of Myopia.

Y, 38, 451-457

The Present State of Knowledge

Y, 40A, 34

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques.

Y, 40B, 39-41

Visual Acuity and Refractive Errors in Primates.

Y, 41, 239-240

A Comparison of Optical Characteristics – Human and Primates.

Y, 42, 89-90

The Development of Simple Myopia.

Y, 44, 1-4

Accommodation and the Control of Myopia.

Y, 46, 7-9

The History of Myopia Development and Plans for West Point.

Y, WP, 542, 543

Refractive Errors of Monkeys – Living in the Wild.

Young 1, 1, 5

This completes Dr. Young Papers critical papers.


My commentary on selected papers.

Commentary on Paper 2, Page 292 data, and calculated statistics for these four groups:

Grand Parents.
N = 48, Eyes = 96
Mean = + 2.21, Sigma = 1.31

N = 90, Eyes = 180
Mean = + 1.19, Sigma = 1.55

Older Children (Light School)
N = 97, Eyes = 194
Mean = – 0.93, Sigma = 1.97

Younger Children (Heavy School), 12 years.
N = 109, Eyes = 218
Mean = – 1.40, Sigma = 1.70

These values show that all normal eyes are dynamic.  They control their refractive state, to the average value of accommodation of each eye.

(2)  See Paper #5.  I suggest you click on, “Graphics”, on this site.  It shows how our normal eyes change their refractive state, from “positive” to “negative” as a natural process.

Adult Children, Age 21 – 25  (After 12 years of close work in school)

N = 41,  Eyes 82

Mean:  – 2.07,  Sigma:  2.23

Parents, Age 46 – 50  (Minimum school, at that time.)

N = 20,  Eyes 40

Mean: + 1.79,  Sigma:  0.97

Commentary:  Close work, created “negative state” in 85 % of these children.

Almost no close work, and virtually none of the parents had, “negative status”, i.e., no myopia.

This is the “deeper essential truth – for very clear distant vision, your refractive state must measure positive.  The children, after doing the required close work for 12 years, had “negative state” that was very serious – problem.  But this is still the normal eye controlling its refractive STATE to its average value of accommodation.

(3)  This is the first truly accurate picture of the normal eye controlling its refractive STATE, to a clear cut “delta”, in its average value of accommodation.  A similar experiment, with young monkeys – using contact lenses, proved that the normal eye would change its refractive STATE, in both direction.  A -3.0 diopter caused a change of -2.3 diopters in about six months.  A +3.0 diopter caused a change of +2.3 diopters in about six months.  See, “Smith III” for details.  This is a dynamic system – not a frozen box camera.  (See “Smith III).



Primate eye in a cage.

Very Young Primate Eye in a cage.

The Young Primate eye.  Response of the normal eye to a confined environment.  The accommodation system was changed, negative.  The normal eye’s refractive STATE followed the accommodation system – as you would expect.


1  Optometry Myopia

2  Statistics from Primate and Human Studies.

Enjoy !